Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
Information on the use of molecular and traditional genetic markers in population genetics and breeding of agricultural plants is presented. An assessment of the level of diversity in populations is given using different types of markers, both at the level of alleles and at the level of individual nucleotides, including the measurement of differentiation within different marker systems. The relationship between molecular divergence, phenotypic divergence and co-origin described. The factors affecting the reliable determination of quantitative trait loci highlighted. Special attention is paid to the mapping of Mendelian genes. Special attention paid to the physiological and biochemical characteristics and their role in the manifestation and identification of economically valuable properties of cultivated plant species. Information is provided on the main hardware and software commonly used to conduct statistical calculations and establish a disequilibrium of marker/trait linking in populations. The purpose of the main computer programs, the most widely used for genetic mapping and establishing a marker / trait association, is briefly discussed.

molecular markers, genetic markers, alleles, nucleotides
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